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Dynamics are the volume of music - usually shown by abbreviations from this range:

dynamics-pp.png pp - pianissimo - very soft
dynamics-p.png p - piano - soft
dynamics-mp.png mp - mezzo piano - medium soft
dynamics-mf.png mf - mezzo forte - medium loud
dynamics-f.png f - forte - loud
dynamics-ff.png ff - fortissimo - very loud

Volume change is shown:

dynamics-cresc.png cresc - crescendo - gradually louder
dynamics-dim.png dim - diminuendo - gradually softer

There are a few more, less often seen:

dynamics-sfz.png sfz - sforzando - 'forced' - with emphasis
dynamics-ppp.png ppp - very very soft
dynamics-fff.png fff - very very loud
dynamics-fp.png fp - forte piano - loud, then immediately soft

Read more: Wikipedia