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Intervals are two notes played at the same time - with a gap or interval between them.

If you think of the lowest note as the 1st, you can count up the keys to find the interval, here's some examples:

  • 2nd: C + D, D + E, G + A, etc (also called a whole tone)
  • 3rd: C + E, D + F, G + B, etc
  • 4th: C + F, D + G, etc
  • 5th: C + G, etc
  • 6th: C + A, etc
  • 7th: C + B, etc
  • 8th: C + C, etc = octave

These keep counting onwards, so a 9th is C + D' - an octave plus one, etc.

And the intervals can have types too: major, minor, perfect, diminished, augmented


Read more: Wikipedia