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Ornaments are added to sheet music to add a flourish to the notes played.

These two kinds of grace notes add a note before the main one:

note-acciaccatura.png acciaccatura / crushed note - play the extra note briefly, with emphasis on the main note
note-appoggiatura.png appoggiatura - play the extra note, then the main note (equal value)

These add a note afterwards:

note-mordent.png mordent - play the note, one above, then the note again
note-mordent-lower.png lower mordent (inverted) - play the note, one below, then the note again
note-trill.png trill - quickly alternate between the note and one above 

And these turns add even more notes:

note-turn.png turn - play note above, note, note below, note
note-turn-after.png turn after - play note, then note above, note, note below, note
note-turn-inverted.png inverted turn - play note below, note, note above, note

Read more: Wikipedia